The recovery and beneficiation of solid waste residues (bottom and fly ash) produced during incineration of municipal wastes are very important goals from the environmental and economic point of view. Some technologies allow not only to reduce the volume of incinerator waste but also to generate products of economic value by vitrification, devitrification, and ceramic processes. Bottom ash is preferable compared to fly ash as a secondary raw material. Mixed with glass cullet, bottom ash can be easily transformed into homogeneous and inert glasses, which can be transformed into glass fibres or sintered glass-ceramics after controlled thermal treatments. Alternatively, bottom ash can be used to produce tiles, in particular glazed tiles containing vitrified bottom ash in the ceramic body, and possibly bricks. The results presented in this review are promising and in accordance with the waste minimization policy as well as resources conservation.
Luisa Barbieri & Isabella Lancellotti
Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell’Ambiente, Modena, Italy firstname.lastname@example.org